Bell High Physical Education DepartmentA physically educated person is one who has mastered the necessary movement skills to participate confidently in many different forms of physical activity, values physical fitness, and understands that both are intimately related to health and well-being.IntroductionHistoryGoalsSportsPurposeAssessmentContent AreasStaffIntroduction
At Bell High school we provide students with developmentally appropriate activities and use a variety of teaching methods based on each student's individual needs. Our Teachers plan programs for all students, regardless of race, gender, home language, disability, or cultural an economic background. Modifications of the program, activities, or types of equipment can be beneficial to all students. In addition, a variety of assessment tools are used to determine each student's level of performance.
Our vision at Bell High is for all students to be involved in physical education and to have fun while moving and learning. Students who participate in our program receive a variety of benefits; (1) the development of a variety of motor skills and abilities related to lifetime leisure skills; (2) an improved understanding of the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle; (3) an improved understanding of movement and the human body; (4) an improved knowledge of the rules and strategies of particular games and sports; and (5) self-confidence and a sense of self-worth in relation to physical education and recreation programs.*
PurposeEducators and parents must recognize that students of all ages need to be as physically active as much as possible in order to stay healthy. Students need physical education every day. It is also important that students have the knowledge and understanding needed to participate in physical activities correctly, safely, and to the best of their ability. For example, students should be able to enjoy such activities as running or playing softball not only because they enjoy the activity but also because they understand and are applying the knowledge needed to achieve their highest level of physical performance.
The most important aspect of physical education is the direct bearing it has on children's physical, mental, and social well-being. The child who is well educated physically is likely to become a healthy adult who is motivated to remain healthy. Also the link between academic learning and physical education is that a healthy, physically active child is more likely to be academically motivated, alert, and successful.
HistoryStarting out as a two year institution in 1925 with only freshman and sophomores attending Bell High turned out a remarkable basketball teams and a championship class C track team. Going into the second year (1926) of its existence Bell High was annexed to the Los Angeles City system and organized into a four year senior high school.
During 1926-1927, the Los Angeles city school system allowed for students to participate in only one sport a semester.
Assessment and EvaluationBackground
Assembly Bill 265, signed into law in October 1995 (E.C. Section 2, Chapter 6. Section 60800) reestablished the statewide physical performance test and mandated that:
"during the month of March, April, or May, the governing board of each school district maintaining any of grades five, seven, and nine shall administer to each pupil in those grades the physical performance test designated by the State Board of Education."AB265 also required that the physical fitness testing data be collected at least once every two years. In February 1996, the State Board of Education designated the Fitnessgram as the required physical performance test to be administered to California students. For a complete copy of this report, please see California Physical Fitness Test 2001: Report to the Governor and Legislature (Acrobat.pdf).
Senate Bill 896, approved in 1998, further required the California Department of Education (CDE) to report results to the Governor and Legislature at least once every two years. Beginning in 2001, results will be collected and reported on an annual basis. This report is to standardize data, track the development of high-quality fitness programs, and compare the performance of California's pupils to national norms.
All students in the specified grades were expected take the physical fitness test, whether or not they were in a physical education class. Students who were physically unable to take all of the physical fitness test were to be given as much of the test as their conditions permitted.
Description of Test
Physical fitness consists of three components: 1) aerobic capacity, 2) body composition, and 3) muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility. To ensure thorough measurement of all three components, the Fitnessgram test assesses the following six major fitness areas, with several performance tasks alternatives for each area.
Aerobic Capacity Pacer
Mile Run/WalkWalk Test
Body Composition Percent Fat Body Mass Index
Abdominal Strength and Endurance Curl-up
Trunk Extensor and Flexibility Trunk Lift
Upper Body Strength and Flexibility Push-up Modified Pull-up Pull-up Flexed Arm Hang
Overall Flexibility Back-saver Sit and Reach Shoulder Stretch
To complete the Fitnessgram, students were required to be tested in the following: One of the options from aerobic capacity
One of the options from body composition
One of the options from upper body strength
the curl-up test
the trunk lift test
one of the options from flexibility
For additional information about the Fitnessgram test, see More About Fitnessgram.
The "Healthy Fitness Zone"
The Fitnessgram uses criterion-referenced standards to evaluate fitness performance. The standards were established by the Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research to represent a level of fitness that offers some degree of protection against diseases that result from sedentary living. Findings from current research based on the United States national norms have been used as the basis for establishing the Fitnessgram standards.
Performance is classified into two general areas: "in the healthy fitness zone (HFZ)" and "needs improvement." For a list of the standards for the HFZ see Fitnessgram Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone. All students should strive to achieve a score within the HFZ. It is possible that some students score above the HFZ. For the purpose of this report, scores are reported as meeting the standard (falling in the fitness zone) or not meeting the standard (falling lower than the HFZ).
Goals and StandardsThe Goals of Physical Education
A comprehensive, articulated physical education system helps children and youths achieve three goals. Within each goal appropriate disciplines are addressed to support the knowledge, skills, and attitudes desired for every student. The three goals are equally important; each interacts continually with the others in a well-planned program.
Goal: Movement Skills and Movement Knowledge
3.Exercise Physiology and Health-related Physical Fitness
Standard 1 The student will be competent in many movement activities and will excel in a few movement activities.
Standard 2 The student will understand how and why one moves in a variety of situations and will use this information to enhance his or her skills.
Standard 3 The student will achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
Goal: Self-Image and Personal Development
1 .Human Growth and Development
Standard 4 The student will exhibit a physically active lifestyle and will understand that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, and self-expression.Standard 5 The student will demonstrate responsible personal behavior while participating in movement activities.
Goal: Social Development
2. Historical Perspectives
Standard 6 The student will demonstrate responsible social behavior while participating in movement activities. The student will understand the importance of respect for all others.
Standard 7 The student will understand the interrelationship between history and culture and games, sports, play, and dance.
Skill and Content AreasThe following skill and content areas support the goals of physical education and are introduced at appropriate ages and grade levels. In addition to developing skills in these various areas, students should be encouraged to acquire understanding and knowledge about the content and skills. They should be able to grasp the why as well as the how and to understand that the content areas are a vehicle for developing and refining the skills.
Skill Areas •Sensorimotor and perceptual motor: kinesthetic,visual tactile,auditory. •Locomotor: Walking, running, jumping, hopping, galloping, skipping. •Nonlocomotor: Swinging/swaying, bending/stretching, pushing/pulling, twisting/turning •Balance: Static:stunts, balance equipment; dynamic: tricycle, unicycle, scooter, beams. •Eye-hand coordination: Gross motor: throwing,catching, bouncing;fine motor: pouring, clapping, cutting, grasping •Eye-foot coordination: Kicking,trapping,dribbling,punting,rhythmic movement. •General coordination: Swinging,climbing,sliding,jumping rope,tumbling. •Creative movement: Rhythmic walking,swaying,moving to music,mirroring movement. Content Areas • Rhythms and Dance. • Individual and Dual Sports. • Aquatics Team Sports. • Combatives (e.g.,self-defense • Mechanics of Body Movement and fencing). • Effects of Physical Activity on body. • Outdoor Education Dynamic Health. • Gymnastics and Tumbling. These skill and content areas are the basis of physical education. For example, developing a sense of rhythm helps children do better in a variety of activities and enhances a sense of flow and coordination. At all levels of the physical education curriculum, content based lessons reinforced the skill areas that are taught. Cognitive learning is an inherent part of the skill and content areas. For example, students learn the application of Newton 's laws in developing rotational skills, balance, and spin. This knowledge helps to reinforce and strengthen their understanding of the skills and their ability to use them. Although children do learn through trial and error, they also benefit from guided discovery and development of an understanding of skills and content.
* Many different resources were used to compile the information in this document, including the Physical Education Framework for California Public Schools and two documents from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE): Outcomes of Quality Physical Education Programs and Moving into the Future, National Standards for Physical Education. Special recognition goes to NASPE for its excellent National Standards,which served as a foundation for this document